This procedure starts with a Doppler signal of the perforator and proceeds sequentially in conjunction with adjacent flaps, similar to fitting puzzle pieces, to create a new, large, jigsaw puzzle-like flap that complies with the concept of a facial aesthetic unit. All defects achieved tensionless primary closure with suturing in a concealed area. Procedures were performed for 40 patients; the average size of the defects was 37 cm range, cm.
Via a jigsaw puzzle flap based on a freestyle perforator and an aesthetic unit, we can take advantage of a greater freedom of flap selection and have a more versatile aesthetic design. The jigsaw puzzle flap concept represents a safe and favorable approach to the reconstruction of large facial defects. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Didn't get the message? Find out why Would make a lovely gift for any puzzle enthusiast.
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BH: So imagine a female surrounded by a bunch of males who are all just boring or grey or black or whatever. Then, totally randomly, a male shows up who just happens to have a little bit of blue on him. And she notices. I like that. That is a little different than everybody else and I like it.
BH: And who knows why, it could be totally random too, but for whatever reason she decides to mate with the blue guy.
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And her daughters are gonna also find those traits attractive. KB: And then off it goes.
JA: But "I like that" doesn't feel to me opposite of fitness. Like, "I like that" could be a desire that is driven by instinct. I mean, couldn't, like, a Wallace person walk in and be like, "Yeah, she likes that because she was designed to like that. But behind that desire is maybe a drive to get her to the male that is the fittest. Like, and I — and I — frankly, it could be the same with us, too.
With people. Like, the — what we find sexy might have a deep logic to it. RK: But, what if I told you about an animal who has a fierce desire for beauty, and this particular desire for beauty is so strong that fitness is out of the picture? BH: And this manakin lives in the jungles of, I forgot where she was. Somewhere in the jungles [laughs].
BH: Kind of an auburn body and black and white wings with little flecks of yellow underneath them. So these are small birds, lot of color. BH: So, to that end, this is what our little red Romeo will do. He'll sit on a branch in the Andean jungle and he'll wait awhile until a female shows up. KB: He has a courtship display. And he bounces back and forth on the perch. KB: Or just shivers. He shivers his wings together. So that the only things that touch are those feathers across the back. The tips of those funny feathers are going knock-knock- knock-knock-knock-knock-knock-knock.
They knock 39 times in a row. And it takes about a third of a second for those 39 knocks. BH: In any case, something about that sound, that specific sound, excites the female. We don't know why or when it started, but somewhere in the bird's past a female decided she liked that sound, and so the males just started to make it. But here's the thing, in order to make that sound? BH: Because to vibrate your wings that fast, times per second, you need a wing bone that can really control.
And so the club winged-manakin has done something unheard of. Their wing bones went solid. But this guy has given this up in order to make these extraordinary wing songs.
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BH: Think about that. You're in a crowded forest. Lots of competitors, lots of predators trying to eat you. And you have made yourself slower, more vulnerable. And it gets worse. Because the manakins have to start this process of building these hard bones really early, like when they're very, very tiny in the embryo. And some of them are gonna be male, but some of them are gonna be female.
RP: So by choosing males with weird wing bones because they make great songs, the female also has daughters with distorted and inferior wing bones that they will never use. RK: Both the females and the males get these thick bones. So she is choosing to hear that sound and has designed him to produce that sound.
But in the bargain, he comes out with heavier bones and can fly less well, and weirdly enough she comes out with heavier bones and can fly less well. So both of them are hurting their chances to survive for the chance to hear the beautiful tone that she wants to hear that he wants to give her.