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He packed the College of Cardinals with his personal appointees, creating no fewer than 34 in his thirteen-year papacy, although the College had been fixed at 24, and leaving at his death only five not beholden to him for their appointment. He made an established practice of political selection for the purpose of favoring this or that prince or sovereign, often choosing lords or barons or younger sons of great families without regard to merit or clerical qualification.
He gave the archiepiscopal see of Lisbon to a child of eight and the see of Milan to a boy of eleven, both sons of princes. He so thoroughly secularized the College that his successors followed his example as if it were the rule. Led by the wild behavior of Pietro Riario, the favorite nephew, whom the new fortunes of his family seem almost to have unbalanced, and augmented by the horde of newly rich della Roveres, the habit of unbridled extravagance became a fixed feature of the papal court. Reports of the affair were all the more shocking at a time of general dismay caused by the Turks having actually landed on the heel of Italy, where they seized Otranto, although they were not to hold it long.
The advance of the Turks since the fall of Constantinople was generally considered to have been allowed by God in punishment for the sins of the Church. Antagonism slowly gathered around Sixtus, especially in Germany, where anti-Romanism born of resentment of the clerical appetite for money was now aggravated by the financial exactions of the Papal Curia, the administrative arm of the Papacy. In the Assembly of Coblenz despatched to Rome a gravamina , or list of grievances.
To ensure efficient collection of revenues, Sixtus created an Apostolic Chamber of lawyers to supervise the financial affairs of the Papal States and the law cases in which the Papacy had a financial interest. He devoted the income to multiplying the estates of his relatives and to embellishing the external glories of the Holy See.
Posterity owes to him the restoration of the Vatican Library, whose holdings he increased threefold and to which he summoned scholars to register and catalogue them. He reopened the Academy of Rome, invited men of renown to its halls, encouraged dramatic performances, commissioned paintings. His name endures in the Sistine Chapel, built at his command for the renovation of old St. Churches, hospitals, fallen bridges and muddy streets benefited from his repairs.
Murder at the Folly : A Violet Carlyle Cozy Historical Mystery
If admirable in his cultural concerns, he exhibited the worst qualities of the Renaissance prince in his feuds and machinations, conducting wars on Venice and Ferrara and an inveterate campaign to reduce the Colonna family, the dominant nobles of Rome. The most scandalous of his dealings was involvement in and possible instigation of the Pazzi plot to murder the Medici brothers. Allied to the Pazzi by complex family interests, he approved of or even shared in the conspiracy, or so it was widely charged and believed owing to the extremity of his reaction when the plot failed by half.
The internal health of the Church did not interest Sixtus, and all calls for a Council, which were rising insistently, he roughly rejected on the precedent of Exsecrabilis. Denial did not end the demand. Stephen King. Terry Hayes. Steve Cavanagh. Jo Nesbo. James Patterson. David Lagercrantz.
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Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Free delivery worldwide. Expected to be delivered to Germany by Christmas. Description September When Violet and Victor run into an old friend in Belgium, they have an idea of what to expect.
What they don't expect is to be followed back to England, persuaded to spend an additional weekend away from home, or to have their group experience another murder.
The Folly of Murder By J. B. Davis
This time, the suspect is their long-time friend Tomas St. Marks--a shell-shocked former soldier. The race is on to discover the real killer before someone they know to be gentle and kind is taken in for a crime he didn't commit. Are you ready for the roaring twenties?
If so, you'll love Vi, her indulgent twin Vic, and their friends. You might even find your interest caught by Chief Inspector Jack Wakefield. A light, cozy mystery with a fun peek into life in the life of a bright young thing. No swearing, graphic scenes, or cliffhangers. Bestsellers in Crime. Blue Moon Lee Child. Add to basket.
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Murder in the Folly
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